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Shaanxi is short for "Shaan” or “Qin”. Shaanxi Province is located in middle part of China and middle reaches of the Yellow River. It’s south to Hanjiang River Basin, a tributary of the Yangtze River, and QinBa Mountain Area in the upper reaches of Jialing River. Xi’an, the capital of Shaanxi, is located in the hinterland of China and the middle reaches of the Yellow River and is adjacent to Shanxi and Henan in the East, Ningxia and Gansu in the West, Sichuan, Chongqing and Hubei in the South, Inner Mongolia in the North. Xi’an lies between 105 ° 29 ′ - 111 ° 15 ′ E and 31 ° 42 ′ - 39 ° 35 ′ N with the total area of 205,600 km2. Both the datum point of China's longitude and latitude and the national time service center of Beijing time are located in Shaanxi Province.

The terrain of Shaanxi Province is high in the north and north and low in the middle, which is composed of plateau, mountain, plain and basin. The Loess Plateau, accounting for 40% of the land area of the whole province, crosses the Yellow River and the Yangtze River as well as three climate zones. The Great Wall area in the north of Shaanxi belongs to the monsoon climate in the middle temperate zone. Guanzhong and most north Shaanxi belong to the warm temperate monsoon climate. South Shaanxi belongs to north subtropical monsoon climate. The terrain of Shaanxi Province is narrow and short in both east and west and narrow and long in both south and north. Shaanxi Province covers 10 latitudes and three climate zones (north subtropical semi-humid climate, warm temperate semi-humid climate, and temperate semi-arid climate). Shaanxi Province is divided into three main blocks, north Shaanxi, Guanzhong and south Shaanxi, from north to south. North Shaanxi is the center of northwest Loess Plateau where there are ravine crisscross hills and deep soil layers. The climate is semi humid and semi-arid.
??? Most rivers in Shaanxi Province are exorheic rivers that belong to the Yellow River and the Yangtze River systems, respectively. The area of the Yellow River basin in Shaanxi Province is 133,301 km2 and there are 2,524 rivers. The area of the Yangtze River basin in Shaanxi Province is 72,265 km2 and there are 1,772 rivers. There are few lakes in Shaanxi Province, except for Sanjianqiu Lake in QinBa Mountain Area, most of which are distributed in the wind-blown sand area along the Great Wall in north Shaanxi.

The general characteristics of climate are: warm and dry, less precipitation, rapid and unstable temperature rise, more windy and sandy weather in springs; hot and rainy with occasional drought in summers; cool and relatively moist, rapid temperature decline in falls; cold and dry, low temperature, rare rain and snow in winters. The annual average temperature of the whole province is 9-16℃ and the temperature decreases from south to north and from east to west. The annual average temperature of north Shaanxi is 7-12℃. The annual average temperature of Guanzhong is 12-14℃. The annual average temperature of south Shaanxi is 14-16℃. The annual average precipitation is 340-1,240mm. The precipitation is more in the south and less in the north. The south Shaanxi is the humid area. Guanzhong is the semi-humid area. North Shaanxi is the semi-arid area.

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